The sport of cricket has a known history beginning in the late 16th century. Having originated in south-east England, it became the country's national
sport in the 18th century and has developed globally in the 19th and 20th centuries. International matches have been played since 1844 and Test cricket began,
retrospectively recognized, in 1877. Cricket is the world's second most popular spectator sport after association football. Governance is by the International
Cricket Council (ICC) which has over one hundred members although only ten play Test cricket.
The origin of cricket is unknown. There is a consensus of expert opinion that it was probably created during Saxon or Norman times by children living in the Weald, an area of dense woodlands and clearings in south-east England that lies across Kent and Sussex. The first definite reference is dated Monday, 17 January 1597.
There have been several speculations about the game's origin including some that it was created in France or Flanders. The earliest of these speculative references is dated Thursday, 10 March 1300 (Julian date) and concerns the future King Edward II playing at "creag and other games" in both Westminster and Newenden. It has been suggested that "creag" was an Old English word for cricket but expert opinion is that it was an early spelling of "craic", meaning "fun and games in general".
It is generally believed that cricket survived as a children's game for many generations before it was increasingly taken up by adults around the beginning of the 17th century. Possibly cricket was derived from bowls, assuming bowls is the older sport, by the intervention of a batsman trying to stop the ball from reaching its target by hitting it away. Playing on sheep-grazed land or in clearings, the original implements may have been a matted lump of sheep’s wool (or even a stone or a small lump of wood) as the ball; a stick or a crook or another farm tool as the bat; and a stool or a tree stump or a gate (e.g., a wicket gate) as the wicket.
A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term "cricket". In the earliest definite reference, it was spelled creckett. The name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch krick(-e), meaning a stick; or the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, or the French word criquet meaning a wooden post. The Middle Dutch word krickstoel means a long low stool used for kneeling in church; this resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of the University of Bonn, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de (krik ket)sen (i.e., "with the stick chase").
It is more likely that the terminology of cricket was based on words in use in south-east England at the time and, given trade connections with the County of Flanders, especially in the 15th century when it belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, many Middle Dutch words found their way into southern English dialects.
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative
teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
The first officially recognized Test match began on 15 March 1877 and ended on 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne from 12 to 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs the same margin as that first Test.
In October 2012, the International Cricket Council recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches. The first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November 2015.
A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed
number of overs, usually 50. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format. One Day International matches are also called Limited Overs Internationals (LOI),
although this generic term may also refer to Twenty20 International matches. They are major matches and considered the highest standard of limited overs
The international one-day game is a late twentieth-century development. The first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, instead, play a one-off one day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white kits with a red ball.
Twenty20 cricket, sometimes written Twenty-20, and often abbreviated to T20, is a short form of cricket. At the professional level, it was originally
introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) in 2003 for the inter-county competition in England and Wales. In a Twenty20 game the two teams have
a single innings each, which is restricted to a maximum of 20 overs. Together with first-class and List A cricket, Twenty20 is one of the three current forms
of cricket recognised by the International Cricket Council (ICC) as being at the highest international or domestic level.
A typical Twenty20 game is completed in about three hours, with each innings lasting around 75–90 minutes and a 10–20 minutes interval. This is much shorter than previously existing forms of the game, and is closer to the timespan of other popular team sports. It was introduced to create a fast-paced form of the game which would be attractive to spectators at the ground and viewers on television.
The 1983 Cricket World Cup was the 3rd edition of the ICC Cricket World Cup tournament. It was held from 9 June to 25 June 1983 in England and
Wales and was won by India. Eight countries participated in the event. The 1983 World Cup was full of dramatic cricket all through the tournament. Teams like
India and Zimbabwe who were not playing well during those times scored upset victories over the West Indies and Australia respectively. England, Pakistan,
India and tournament favorites West Indies qualified for the semi-finals. The preliminary matches were played in two groups of four teams each, and each
country played the others in its group twice. The top two teams in each group qualified for the semi-finals.
The matches consisted of 60 overs per innings and were played in traditional white clothing and with red balls. They were all played during the day.
In the first semi-final, at Old Trafford on 22 June, England won the toss and elected to Bat. The English batsmen mistimed many balls and used the bat's edge frequently, as the restrictive Indian bowling led England to score 213. Graeme Fowler top scored, and Kapil Dev took 3 for 35 in eleven overs, with Mohinder Amarnath and Roger Binny taking two wickets each. In reply, Yashpal Sharma and Sandeep Patil made half-centuries, as India reached their target in 54.4 overs, winning by 6 wickets in a classic victory over the previous tournament's runners-up. Mohinder Amarnath picked up the man-of-the-match award for his all round performance, which saw him add 46 runs to his earlier bowling success.
The second semi-final, between Pakistan and the West Indies, was staged at The Oval on the same day. West Indies won the toss and inserted Pakistan, whom they restricted to just 184. Mohsin Khan fought his way past 50 against the superb West Indies Bowling (he was the only Pakistani batsman to reach 50). Malcolm Marshall and Andy Roberts starred with the ball. The West Indies innings was based around a superb innings by Viv Richards, who took the man-of-the-match award, and an unbeaten half-century by Larry Gomes, as the defending champions reached their target for the loss of just two wickets.
In the final, India lost the toss and were asked to bat first against a West Indies team that arguably boasted the world's best bowling attack. Only Krishnamachari Srikanth and Mohinder Amarnath put up any significant resistance as Roberts, Marshall, Joel Garner and Michael Holding ripped through the Indian batsmen, ably supported by Gomes. Surprising resistance by the tail allowed India to compile 183. When Indian chips were down Kapil Dev said "team if this is not a winning total its definitely a fighting total" One of the popular quotes of all time. However, the Indian bowling exploited the weather and pitch conditions perfectly to bowl out the best batting lineup of the era for 140 from 52 overs in return, winning by 43 runs and completing one of the most stunning upsets in cricket history. Amarnath and Madan Lal each took three wickets, and one memorable moment was the sight of Kapil Dev running a great distance to take a catch to dismiss Richards, the West Indies top scorer with 33 from 28 balls. Amarnath was the most economical bowler, conceding just 12 runs from his seven overs, while taking 3 wickets, and was once again awarded the Man of the Match award for his all-round performance. There was no 'Man of the Series' awarded in 1983.
The 2007 ICC World Twenty20 was the inaugural Twenty20 cricket world championship, contested in South Africa from 11 to 24 September 2007. Twelve
teams took part in the thirteen-day tournament the ten Test-playing nations and the finalists of the 2007 WCL Division One tournament: Kenya and Scotland.
India won the tournament, beating Pakistan in the final.
This tournament's Super Eight format was designed such that the top 2 seeds from each group was pre-decided at the start of the tournament. The actual performance of the team in the Group Stage played no role in determining if the team qualified into Super Eight Group.
In case a third-seeded team qualified ahead of the two top-seeded teams, it took on the seed of the eliminated team. Where Bangladesh qualified ahead of West Indies and therefore took on the spot. The other seven top seeds qualified.
The eight teams were divided into two groups of four teams each. The two top teams from each Super Eight group qualified for the semi-finals.
After three teams finished on equal points New Zealand and India advanced to the semi-finals by having higher net run rates. The host, South Africa, were eliminated as a result of this match.
India won the toss and chose to bat on what was considered to be a traditionally batsman-friendly pitch at the Bullring. Umar Gul took the wickets of both Yuvraj Singh and Mahendra Singh Dhoni, leaving India with 157/5 in 20 overs; only Gautam Gambhir produced a notable innings. A 21-run over from Sreesanth swung the game towards Pakistan. However, Irfan Pathan and Joginder Sharma slowed the scoring dramatically. With Pakistan needing 54 from 24 balls, Misbah-ul-Haq hit 3 sixes off Harbhajan Singh in one over. Sreesanth was also dispatched for 2 sixes but took the wicket of Sohail Tanvir, as Pakistan went into the last over needing 13 runs to win, with only 1 wicket remaining. Joginder Sharma bowled a wide first ball, followed by a dot ball. Misbah followed by taking six off a full-toss; Pakistan needed just 6 runs to win from the last four balls. Misbah attempted to hit the next ball with a paddle-scoop over fine leg, but he only managed to sky the ball, and it was caught at short fine-leg by Sreesanth, leaving Pakistan all out for 152 runs. Irfan Pathan was awarded the Man of the Match for his spell, which included 3 wickets for 16 runs, including that of Man of the Series, Shahid Afridi.
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was the tenth Cricket World Cup. It was played in India, Sri Lanka, and (for the first time) Bangladesh. India won the
tournament, defeating Sri Lanka by 6 wickets in the final in Mumbai, thus becoming the first country to win the Cricket World Cup final on home soil. India's
Yuvraj Singh was declared the man of the tournament. This was the first time in World Cup history that two Asian teams had appeared in the final. It was also
the first time since the 1992 World Cup that the final match did not feature Australia.
All the matches were One Day Internationals, and all were played over 50 overs. Fourteen national cricket teams took part, including 10 full members and four associate members of the ICC. The opening ceremony was held on 17 February 2011 at Bangabandhu National Stadium, Dhaka, and the tournament was played between 19 February and 2 April. The first match was played between India and Bangladesh at the Sher-e-Bangla National Stadium in Mirpur, Dhaka.
Pakistan was also scheduled to be a co-host, but after the 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team in Lahore, the International Cricket Council (ICC) cancelled that, and the headquarters of the organising committee, originally in Lahore, was transferred to Mumbai. Pakistan was to have held 14 matches, including one semi-final. Eight of the games (including the semi-final) were awarded to India, four to Sri Lanka, and two to Bangladesh.